Tag teAM Deutschland

Das Internet im Wahlkampf: Beispiele zu Kampagnenfunktionen und Wirkungsmechanismen aus dem Bundestagswahlkampf 2013

Vor einigen Tagen sprach ich auf der Tagung „Medienkonvergenz im Bundestagswahlkampf 2013“ in Mainz zur Rolle des Internets in den Kampagnen der Parteien zum Bundestagswahlkampf 2013. Inzwischen sind Videoaufzeichnungen aller Vorträge online. Die Vorträge waren besonders spannend, da die Organisatoren eine interessante Mischung aus Wahlkampfpraktikern, Journalisten und Wissenschaftlern eingeladen hatten, so dass die Tagung ihr Thema aus unterschiedlichster Perspektive illustrieren konnte. Anbei meine 5 Cent zum Thema.

Und die anschliessende Diskussion.

Interview bei CICERO Online zur Rolle des Internets im Wahlkampf

In einem Interview mit Cicero Online habe ich heute noch einmal über die Rolle des Internets in deutschen Wahlkämpfen gesprochen.

Eine der Kernaussagen betrifft die Art wie wir in Deutschland die Rolle des Internets in Kampagnen diskutieren:

Die öffentliche Debatte über die Rolle des Internets ist in Deutschland noch immer viel zu provinziell. Auf der einen Seite haben wir Berater, die das Thema hochjubeln und übersteigerte Erwartungen wecken, auf der anderen Seite Journalisten, die es kaputtschreiben. Beide Gruppen schauen auf die USA und sind enttäuscht, wenn ihre Wahrnehmung der Rolle des Internets im US-Wahlkampf so in Deutschland nicht umgesetzt wird. Dadurch vernachlässigen wir in der öffentlichen Diskussion leider die tatsächlichen Funktionen, die das Internet für Parteien und Kandidaten in Deutschland erfüllt.

Eine andere Frage bezog sich darauf was man in Deutschland aus dem US-Wahlkampf lernen kann:

(…) hierzulande verlässt man sich im Online-Wahlkampf noch zu sehr auf anekdotisches Expertenwissen. Die Amerikaner versuchen sehr viel stärker, entscheidende Elemente der Kampagnenführung messbar zu machen. Sie probieren viel mehr aus, beobachten genau, welche Methoden funktionieren und passen sich dann an. Dieses datengestützte, analytische Vorgehen könnte man auch in Deutschland mit großem Gewinn umsetzen.

Andreas Jungherr im Interview mit Merle Schmalenbach: Wahlkampf Online: Die Wahl wird nicht im Internet entschieden. CICERO Online. 20/09/2013.

Neuer Artikel: Die Rolle des Internets in deutschen Wahlkämpfen

Heute ist in der Zeitschrift für Politikberatung ein Artikel von mir zur Nutzung des Internets in deutschen Wahlkämpfen erschienen. Hier das Abstract und der Link zu einem Preprint:

Die Rolle des Internets in deutschen Wahlkämpfen

Abstract
Um die Potentiale des Internets für Wahlkämpfer in Deutschland zu verstehen, ist es notwendig, differenziert über die Funktionen des Internets für politische Kampagnen nachzudenken. Hierbei bietet sich die Analyse von drei Funktionsweisen an:

    1. Internetdienste als Werkzeuge, um die Sichtbarkeit politischer Akteure und ihrer Inhalte im Informationsraum Internet zu gewährleisten;
    2. Die Unterstützung der Infrastruktur einer politischen Kampagne durch digitale Werkzeuge und das Internet;
    3. Die symbolische Sichtbarmachung von politischer Unterstützung und des Momentums von Kampagnen und die damit verbundene Möglichkeit, darauf folgender Berichterstattung traditioneller Medien.

Die Potentiale dieser Funktionsweisen sind jeweils abhängig von den spezifischen politischen, rechtlichen, kulturellen und historischen Kontexten in denen Kampagnen und Kandidaten agieren. Sie können sich je nach Kandidat, Partei oder Land unterscheiden. In dem vorliegenden Artikel werden diese Funktionen des Internets für politische Kampagnen an den Beispielen der Präsidentschaftskampagnen Barack Obamas und deutscher Wahlkämpfe diskutiert.

Preprint

Andreas Jungherr. 2013. “Die Rolle des Internets in deutschen Wahlkämpfen.” Zeitschrift für Politikberatung 2/2013. S.91-95.

Das Internet im Wahlkampf: Vortrag

Vor kurzem hielt ich im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe “Internet & Society” einen Vortrag an der Universität Göttingen über die Rolle des Internets in Wahlkämpfen. Eine Videoaufzeichnung des Vortrags gibt es inzwischen online:

Hier noch einmal das Abstract zum Thema des Vortrags:

Das Internet im Wahlkampf: Beispiele zu Kampagnenfunktionen und Wirkungsmechanismen aus den USA und Deutschland

Die aktuelle Diskussion über die Rolle des Internets in Wahlkämpfen beschränkt sich in der Regel darauf, die erfolgreiche Nutzung des Internets in den Wahlkämpfen Barack Obamas mit der weniger erfolgreichen Nutzung des Internets in Wahlkämpfen von Kandidaten in anderen politischen, rechtlichen, kulturellen und historischen Kontexten zu vergleichen. Dieser Vergleich, den man als Amerikanisierung 2.0 bezeichnen könnte, verstellt jedoch den Blick auf die tatsächlichen Potentiale des Internets für Kampagnen außerhalb der USA, da die Vergleichskategorie – Erfolg im Internet – zu stark von spezifischen Rahmenbedingungen der Obama-Kampagnen in den USA der Jahre 2008 und 2012 abhängt.

Um die Potentiale des Internets für Wahlkämpfer in Deutschland zu verstehen, ist es notwendig differenziert über die Funktionen des Internets für politische Kampagnen nachzudenken. Hierbei bietet sich die Analyse von drei Funktionsweisen an:

1. Internetdienste als Werkzeuge, um die Sichtbarkeit des politischen Akteurs und seiner Inhalte im Informationsraum Internet zu unterstützen;
2. Die Unterstützung der Infrastruktur einer politischen Kampagne durch digitale Werkzeuge und das Internet;
3. Die symbolische Sichtbarmachung von politischer Unterstützung und des Momentums von Kampagnen und die damit verbundene Möglichkeit, darauf folgender Berichterstattung traditioneller Medien.

Die Potentiale dieser Funktionsweisen sind jeweils abhängig von den spezifischen politischen, rechtlichen, kulturellen und historischen Kontexten in denen Kampagnen und Kandidaten agieren. Sie können sich je nach Kandidat, Partei oder Land unterscheiden. In dem folgenden Vortrag werden diese Funktionen des Internets für politische Kampagnen an den Beispielen der Präsidentschaftskampagnen Barack Obamas und deutscher Wahlkämpfe diskutiert.

New Article: “Online campaigning in Germany: The CDU online campaign for the general election 2009 in Germany”

A few days back “German Politics” published the iFirst version of my paper “Online campaigning in Germany: The CDU online campaign for the general election 2009 in Germany“. In this paper I describe the attempts of the German conservatives to include Web 2.0 elements in their campaign of 2009. It's a little light on theory but I hope that the rich description in the paper helps the reader in getting a feeling for the present state of Web 2.0 campaigning in Germany. Please let me know what you think.

The paper was first prepared for the MPSA meeting in 2010, which as it turned out I could not attend because of a rather temperamental volcano on Iceland. Early in 2012 I presented another early version of the paper during a workshop organized by Rachel Gibson and Andrea Römmele at the ECPR joint session in Antwerp, Belgium. So this paper has a bit of milage on it but I'm happy that it's finally out.

Here is the abstract:

The German election year 2009 saw the first attempts by political parties to include Web 2.0 services in their online campaigns. The 2009 election therefore offers the opportunity to examine how political parties outside the USA – where online campaigning has become commonplace – choose to use online tools in their campaigns. This paper examines the online campaign of the German Christian Democratic Union (CDU) with a special focus on the campaign's use of Web 2.0 services. The different elements of the campaign will be discussed with regard to three basic functions of online campaigning provided by the relevant literature: 1) presence in the online information space; 2) support of the infrastructure of politics; 3) creation of symbols for political support and participation. This paper shows that these functions were all present in the CDU's use of online tools in the campaign of 2009.

Andreas Jungherr. 2012. (Online First). “Online campaigning in Germany: The CDU online campaign for the general election 2009 in Germany.” German Politics.

 

The German federal election of 2009: The challenge of participatory cultures in political campaigns

Today my article “The German federal election of 2009: The challenge of participatory cultures in political campaigns” was published in a special issue on Fan Activism of the journal “Transformative Works and Cultures” edited by Henry Jenkins and Sangita Shresthova. In the article I present three case studies from the campaign for the federal election of 2009 in Germany.

Abstract: Increasingly, political actors have to act in online communication environments. There they meet overlapping networked publics with different levels of participatory cultures and varying expectations of participation in the (re)making and co-production of political content. This challenges political actors used to a top-down approach to communication. Meanwhile, online users are increasingly politically involved as legislatures all over the world become more active in regulating communication environments online. These new political actors often share participatory practices and have high levels of new media skills. Now they are challenged to adapt these bottom-up participatory cultures to the traditional political environment. This paper examines these adaption processes by examining three examples from the campaign for the German federal election of 2009. These examples include the attempt of Germany’s conservative party (CDU) to encourage their supporters to adapt participatory practices, the German Social Democrats’ (SPD) top-down production and distribution of online content that mimicked the look and feel of user-generated content, and the bottom-up emergence of political flash mobs.

Andreas Jungherr. 2012. “The German federal election of 2009: The challenge of participatory cultures in political campaigns.” Transformative Works and Cultures 10. doi:10.3983/twc.2012.0310.

Interview on the State of Online Campaigning in Germany

Last Thursday Philipp Albrecht interviewed me for politik-digital.de on the state of online campaigning in Germany. We talked about some recent examples of successful online campaigns by political parties in Germany. In addition we discussed general functions of online elements in German campaigns: Die Zeit des Kampagnen-Twitterns ist vorbei.

“Social Media in political campaigns in Germany” at #pdfeu

Damn, Barcelona is hard to leave! This year’s Personal Democracy Forum Europe again took place in Barcelona, which in early autumn is a wonderful place to be. I just returned from there to the more central European version of autumn here in Germany. This post is not to reflect on the whole PDF EU experience, this will have to wait for a later time, but to briefly sketch the panel I was involved in.

The panel was called “Online Political Organizing in Regional and Local Campaigns” and moderated by Antonella Napolitano [@svaroschi]. With Nicolas Vanbremeersch [@versac] from France, Dino Amenduni [@doonie] from Italy, and Lluis Recorder [@lluisrecoder] from Spain we discussed short case studies in which we tried to illustrate the potential of social media for campaigns on a regional or local level.

Nicolas talked about his experiences using social media to facilitate closer contact between citizens and regional branches of the French government. Dino talked about the highly media centered campaigns he did with the Italian agency Proforma for two Italian politicians, Michele Emiliano and Nichi Vendola. Lluís Recorder, mayor of Sant Cugat del Vallès, talked about his experiences in using social media channels and their influence on his governing practice. These talks were highly stimulating and the presented cases illustrated the potential of social media in different European and political contexts. If you are interested there is an audio recording of the panel available on the PDF Europe site.

On the panel I talked about the social media elements in three recent CDU campaigns – Hessen 2009, the general election 2009 and Nordrhein-Westfalen 2010. In the presentation I tried to highlight the continuity between the campaigns, which exemplify an interesting cycle of campaign learning that build on the lessons of the preceding campaigns. As my presentation design focuses on visuals I hope the recording of the panel gives you the context you need for the slides above.

[Update: 2010/10/15]
Antonella Napolitano has posted a written a little wrap up on the session on the PDF Europe blog: From PdF Europe 2010: Online Political Organizing in Regional and Local Campaigns.

Twitter in Politics at CHI 2010 – The Presentation

This sunday I participated in the workshop Microblogging: What and How Can We Learn Form It? at CHI 2010 in Atlanta, Georgia. During the workshop I presented my position paper Twitter in Politics: Lessons Learned during the German Superwahljahr 2009 in an ignite talk.

The workshop was organized by Julia H. Grace [@jewelia], Dejin Zhao [@djzaho] and danah boyd [@zephoria]. It was a great experience and very interesting to discuss the research challenges that microblogging poses with an international and highly interdisciplinary crowd of researchers. I‘ll post my thoughts on the workshop later this day. In this post I‘ll make my presentation and the rough draft of my talk available.

Since I tend to speak freely in presentations this draft might not be exactly what I said, still it should be pretty close. Anyhow this talk was meant as an appetizer to the position paper on the same topic. So, if you‘re looking for something to cite, kindly have a look at said position paper.

Twitter in Politics: Lessons Learned during the German Superwahljahr 2009

by Andreas Jungherr

Draft v.1.0
2010/04/13

In this ignite talk I want to take you on a short trip through my position paper Twitter in Politics: Lessons Learned during the German Superwahljahr 2009, so that by the end of this presentation, you‘ll have an idea on how and why the German party CDU used Twitter in the campaigns of 2009 like it did.

2009 was a special year for political campaigners in Germany. This had two reasons:

One was the relative high density of high-profile elections in this year. In 2009 there were elections in five important Bundesländern, elections to the European parliament, the election of the German Bundespräsident and in autumn, the German general election.This lead to the term Superwahljahr – the year of the super election.

The second reason was Barack Obama, or rather the things Obama did to win the US presidential election, or rather the things the media thought he was doing to win the election.

The German media was quick to identify the microblogging service Twitter as a key element to Obama‘s victory. And while one can find good reasons to disagree with their assessment, Twitter suddenly became the thing to do for up and coming politicians.

As anyone knows who worked with politicians, politicians tend to be like kids with regard to the adoption of knew technology. At first they want nothing to do with anything new, but when the cool kids are flashing a new toy there is nothing more important to them than to possess exactly THAT toy. This is exactly what happened with regard to Twitter in the German political scene from late 2008 onwards.

During 2008 most German politicians kept as far away from Twitter as humanly possible only to flock to the service in the aftermath of the press-storm about the online magic the Obama campaign managed to conjure up. In late 2008 and early 2009 many German politicians regardless of party and age found their inner Twitterer – or the inner Twitterer of a lucky staff member – and started a Twitter account.

This led to considerable concern in all parties since suddenly the campaigns had a social media component that was new to German campaigns. Fortunately the high frequency of campaigns in 2009 proved to be very fortunate for exactly this challenge. Campaigns on the state and European level could be used as prototypes for elements of social media campaigning. So by the time the national campaign went into its hot phase most German parties had had the chance to get acquainted with social media and incorporate it in some way in their grand strategy.

This proved to be a very interesting time to work for political campaigns in Germany. In early 2009 I entered the campaign to reelect the Ministerpräsident of Hessia, Roland Koch. During that campaign my work focused pretty much on the use of Twitter by our online campaign, the webcamp09. Later that year I entered the national campaign for the general elections. There I also worked on the use of Twitter by the campaign but I also worked on the approach the campaign took to social media in general.

This already hints at the way the CDU treated their campaigns in the Bundesländer. These campaigns were not isolated but were used as test cases and prototypes for the use of Twitter and social media in general. Two of the most valuable prototypes for the national campaign proved to be the online campaigns in the Bundesländern Hessia and Saarland. Both campaigns centered their online campaigns with their respective volunteer campaigns, the webcamp09 and the Peter Müller Team 09. Both campaigns used Twitter feeds under the names [@webcamp09] and [@pmt09]. The experiences with these accounts led the national campaign to start a Twitter feed [@teAMDeutschland]. And in turn the lessons learned during the campaign for the general elections in 2009 led to the way the campaign to reelect the Ministerpräsident Jürgen Rüttgers uses their Twitter account [@nrwruettgers] in early 2010, a campaign which I advise on their online activities.

So which were some of the lessons learned? Twitter proved a very important tool to do some classic community building. The Twitter feeds [@webcamp09] and [@teAMDeutschland] were both used to get online supporters in contact with each other and to react to their comments or critiques.

Twitter proved to be a very successful channel for the distribution of social objects (after Hugh MacLeod). Most of the time these social objects were not content designed by the campaign but content that was either created by supporters or party candidates who strayed from the official CI.

Twitter proved also to be a very useful backchannel to campaign events. It was possible for supporters and critics alike to follow and comment on campaign events, political TV shows or the debate between Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel and the SPD candidate Frank-Walter Steinmeier through Twitter. This proved to be valuable addition to classical campaign events.

Still, the experiences with Twitter during the campaign were not completely unproblematic. One of the biggest issues raised through the widespread adoption of Twitter was a sudden surge in negative campaigning. The content that was distributed the widest through Twitter was mostly negative in nature or contained attacks on the the political opponent. This was true for all political parties. This leads to fundamental questions about the political use of social media and how we can avoid that widespread political use of social media leads to a surge in negative campaigning.

So how are the Twitter efforts of these campaigns to be evaluated. Did they decide the election? Probably not. Personally I think the most important element in the political twittering of 2009 was the active learning process that it started in the party CDU. In the final account it is nor all that important which campaign did use Twitter the best or had the most followers. In the end it matters which political party is able after a campaign to clearly articulate lessons learned and to establish processes that guarantee perpetual learning and prototyping to ensure that said party keeps in contact with its online supporters and online critics.

This was a little appetizer to the content covered in the position paper. For a more detailed discussion of the issues raised in this presentation please have a look at the position paper itself.

Thank you.

Twitter in Politics: Lessons Learned during the German Superwahljahr 2009

Andreas Jungherr (2010) ‘Twitter in Politics: Lessons Learned during the German Superwahljahr 2009’. Position Paper presented at the Workshop on Microblogging at the CHI10 (ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems), Atlanta, USA on 10-15 April.

There are two ways to access this paper:
1. One as a pdf in the original CHI layout.
2. Second right here in plain html which might be easier for reading on the screen.

Still, I would be grateful that if you want to cite the paper you’d use the pdf version as authoritative.

Also, I posted the ignite talk on this blog in which I sketched this paper at the CHI2010 workshop on microblogging.

Twitter in Politics: Lessons Learned during the German Superwahljahr 2009

Abstract
In this position paper I discuss the impact of microblogging on political communication in Germany. Also, I will present lessons learned on how political actors can use microblogging services in their campaigns. These lessons are based on my work for the German CDU during two major election campaigns in 2009.

Introduction
2009 was the year in which microblogging became a relevant phenomenon in the German political sphere. The reason for this was the high frequency of elections in 2009. It proved to be a good year for political actors to experiment with new communication tools. Various elections on the German federal level and the election of the European parliament led the way to the German general election in September 2009. This high frequency of elections led to the term ‘Superwahljahr’ (year of the super election).

2009 witnessed the rapid adoption of the microblogging service Twitter by politicians, political parties and political supporters in Germany. The reason for this explosion of political Twitter feeds lies in overenthusiastic reports on the internet-success of the Obama campaign. These reports made Twitter the new must-have-item in each up-and-coming politician’s campaigning toolbox. More often than not the desire of politicians to use Twitter, or better, the desire of politicians to be seen using Twitter, led to public ridicule. Even the most skilled political microbloggers were prone to missteps. One well-publicized example is the case of Members of Parliament Ulrich Kelber and Julia Klöckner who twittered the result of the German Bundespräsidentenwahl from the floor of the house minutes before the result was officially pronounced [1]. This and other incidents led to very critical discussions of Twitter and microblogging in general. While this introduced a welcome dose of pragmatism in the debate today the tendency is to declare microblogging as inconsequential and the realm of childish hipsters and self-marketing gurus [5]. This pessimistic view does not correspond with the experiences political parties and politicians made with Twitter. In this position paper I want to discuss the applications of microblogging in politics and present some of the lessons learned during the Superwahljahr 2009.

To do so I base my observations on my own campaign activities for the German party CDU. I worked for the CDU during two mayor campaigns – Hessia 2009 and the campaign to reelect chancellor Angela Merkel in the German general elections 2009. In these campaigns my focus was on online campaigning and the use of social media channels.

Twitter in Politics
During 2009 the microblogging service Twitter has been widely adopted by the political set in Germany. Since then different variations of political twittering emerged. There were Twitter feeds by:

- politicians
- political parties
- official campaign accounts
- private feeds by political supporters

While all these exhibit different characteristics and bring with them different issues for a political campaign, there are a number of lessons learned and open questions that apply to all these political Twitter accounts.

Lessons Learned
During different campaigns in 2009 we found successful ways to use microblogging in political communication. These uses can be collected under three categories. It is important to know that we did not start with the intention of using microblogging to achieve theses tasks. Still, during our microblogging activities they emerged as the most successful usage patterns.

Microblogging as community building
At the beginning of 2009 CDU campaigns faced an online public sphere in which only a minority of CDU supporters voiced their opinions. The online supporters were few and for the most part not interconnected. The official Twitter feeds of our campaigns (@webcamp09 and @teamdeutschland) served as hubs through which online supporters could find each other and interact. We used the Twitter conventions @message and RT very consciously to foster this interaction between political supporters. In this way our microblogging feeds became tools for successful community building.

Microblogging as distribution channel for social objects
During the campaigns we found that objects like campaign posters, poster remixes, videos or links to articles were in and of itself of little importance. What mattered was the interaction of our supporters around these objects. This corresponds with the theory of the role of social objects in social media [4]. Our microblogging feeds proved to be ideal channels to point the attention of our supporters to objects on the web that might illicit further interactions among them. This use also led to a strengthening of our community building efforts through microblogging feeds.

Microblogging as communication backchannel to political events
The role of microblogging as a communication backchannel to social events has been often discussed in its positive and negative aspects [2]. During our campaigns, microblogging feeds proved to be useful communication backchannels. Be it for campaign events, which supporters at the event broadcasted through their Twitter feeds, or be it as backchannels to traditional media events (i.e. TV debates, discussion rounds or political documentaries) through which supporters discussed the events or their reactions to it. During the campaigns we made no experiences with disruptive effects of microblogging backchannels.

Open Questions
Although political actors increasingly come to terms with Twitter there remain open questions that have to be addressed if microblogging shall be used constructively in political communication:

Negativity reappears with a vengeance
Negative campaigning was always one of the more ugly aspects of political campaigns. This aspect achieves new prominence through the adoption of social media and microblogging. Experience shows that the most successful content – the content that gets distributed widely over microblogging feeds or creates the most buzz – is negative in nature or a direct attack on the political competitor. If microblogging should grow in importance for political communication this tendency towards negativity has to be consciously addressed.

Expectation management
All participants have to form more realistic and explicit expectations to the uses and desired effects of microblogging. Politicians have to be clear about what they want to achieve with their microblogging activities and how to evaluate those. The public and the media have to form expectations about constructive political microblogging. For political microblogging to emerge as a constructive element in political communication, it is not sufficient to discuss whether ‘Angela Merkel pokes back’ on Facebook or on similar platforms [6]. Finally one has to accept the realities that online activities of political actors will always be more intensive in times of political campaigns. If after elections online activities decline it is not necessarily a sign of an ‘offline autumn’ [3] but of consolidation of communication activities and a reevaluation which of these activities are sustainable during times of lower resources and different political challenges.

Embrace the Fail Whale
An active presence on Twitter by a party or a politician means that mistakes will happen. Be it directly if a political actor mistweets or indirectly when statements of a political supporter get quoted as the actual party line. If society asks of parties and politicians to open up the process of political communication, society and the media have to become more tolerant to the mistakes that will happen along the way.

Caveat
In 2009 German parties tried different approaches to the use of microblogging feeds during campaigns. The lessons presented in this position paper are based on my work for the German party CDU. These lessons therefore might be different from an analysis that would be grounded in experiences collected during work for other parties. Be that as it may, I hope these lessons might serve as a conversation starter to deepen our understanding of the function of microblogging in politics.

Acknowledgements
I thank Pascal Jürgens for much appreciated critical advice. Also I want to thank the inhabitants of the @hessenwg Dirk Koch, Alexander Kurz and Sina Marzisnki. Without those three the Superwahljahr 2009 would have been much longer and would have seemed a lot more like real work.

Citations
[1] Boie, J.: Das Zwitschern der Weinkönigin. sueddeutsche.de. 2009/05/26. .
[2] boyd, d.: spectacle at Web2.0 Expo… from my perspective.
[3] König, M.: Der deutsche Offline-Herbst. sueddeutsche.de. 2009/10/13.
[4] MacLeod, H.: more thoughts on social objects. gapingvoid.
[5] Meckel, M., Stanoevska-Slabeva, K.: Auch Zwitschern muss man üben: Wie Politiker im deutschen Bundestagswahlkampf ‘twitterten’. Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 2009/11/10.
[6] Sagatz, K.: Gruscheln mit Angela. Der Tagesspiegel. 2009/04/28.